AIDS Is the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Causative agent (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV which has two types: HIV1 & HIV2. HIV1 distributed all over the world while HIV2 is mainly in West Africa. HIV2 resembles Simian Monkey virus, SMV. HIV2 causes disease of lower pathogenicity and longer incubation period.  HIV viruses are weak viruses that die in vitro after only 10 seconds).


Reservoir of infection is Man, cases & carriers, Exit of the virus is mainly through blood, seminal & vaginal fluids and occasionally through milk, tears & saliva. The virus causes immune deficiency by attacking the following immunity cells: T-helper cells and Macrophages.

Clinical picture: Loss of body weight > 10%, Persistent diarrhea for > 1 month, Persistent fever for > 1 month, Persistent cough for > 1 month, Generalized Lymphadenopathy, Herpes zoster / Herpes simplex, Pruritic dermatitis.

Diagnosis: Clinical findings, Screening tests: ELISA, Rapid screening Kits, Confirmatory test:  Western Blot test. When the virus enters the body, it takes about 2 months for the antibody markers to appear in the blood, this is the window phase.

High risk groups: Homosexuals, Prostitutes, Patients receiving Blood or blood products, Blood donors, Addicts using syringes & needles, Medical and paramedical personnel, Those doing acupuncture and tattooing.

AIDS is not transmitted by: Casual contact, handshakes, hugging, Cups, glasses, plates, Insects, Toilets, Droplet infection.

Mode of transmission: Sexual intercourse, Exposure to infected blood as through (Blood or blood products transfusion, Contaminated syringes and needles, Professional infection by health care providers, Acupuncture, tattooing), Perinatal: from mother to baby.

Global strategy for prevention and control of AIDS: Prevention of transmission through sexual contact (Strengthen the religious background: And that you don’t approach lewdness manifest or concealed.  Holey Quran, Reduce the number of partners, Avoid sex with prostitutes, Promote the use of condoms), Prevention of transmission through infected blood (Blood screening before transfusion, Exclude addicts from donating blood, Use disposable syringes & needles, Precautions to avoid professional infection, Precautions for acupuncture and tattooing), Prevention of transmission through Organ and semen donation, Prevention of Perinatal transmission, Health education, The use of Anti- HIV drugs as AZT, CD4 and Reduce the impact of AIDS on Victim, Family and  Community.

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