Administration is the process of achieving predetermined goals at a defined time through guidance, leadership and control of efforts of group of individuals and the efficient use of nonhuman resources.

Public health administration is the application of the art and science of administration in managing public health problems and meeting the health needs of the community. It can be defined also as the skillful use of human & non-human resources for conducting health services of maximal efficiency & effectiveness.

Management is getting things done, Is getting things done through people, Is getting things done through people and directing the efforts of individuals towards a common objective.

Management is working with and through individuals and groups and other resources to accomplish organizational goals. Management is the efficient use of resources.

Management is getting people to work harmoniously together and to make efficient use of resources to achieve objectives. Management is to make decisions.

Management is the art and science of carrying out a policy or a plan to achieve an objective or a goal. Management is the process of guiding human activities toward the accomplishment of organizational objectives.

Management is the process of achieving objectives through optimum   (economic) use of resources. Important elements in this definition are: process, objectives and resources.

The 1st element: Process is a series of continuous functions or activities.                       Management is not static and fixed but dynamic and adaptive over time.

Management is not a single function but a series of interrelated interactive functions and activities as planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling and decision making.                                                                                                           

The 2nd element: Objective is a measurable state of accomplishment                     Management aims at achieving objectives. Management ensures first that objectives are specified and then they are achieved. Achieving objectives is the basic function of management.

Objectives can be classified based on: Scope into goals, objectives and targets, Time limit into long term, intermediate and short term objectives, Importance of achievement into primary and secondary objectives.

Objective is required to be SMART: Specific, Simple, Measurable, Achievable, Attainable, Realistic, Result oriented, Relevant and Timely oriented.

For the objective to be specific, it should specify: What do you want to achieve?, How much do you want to achieve?, When it is to be completed?, Where it is to be done? and How it is to be achieved

A statement like: To perform Job Hazard Analysis on the jobs in my work area is not a specific objective. A better statement is: To perform Job Hazard Analysis for two jobs in my work area each quarter.

For the objective to be measurable, there must be some means by which achievement can be quantified.

Avoid general statement of objectives as to know, to understand, to enjoy, to believe, etc. and it is better to use observable action verbs as to write, to apply, to revise, to install, to select, to assemble, to investigate, etc.

For the objective to be achievable or attainable, it should be within the capacity of available resources.

Objective is required to be realistic: Many objectives are realistic, yet, the time it takes to achieve them may be unrealistic. For example, it is realistic to want to lose 10 pounds, but it is unrealistic to want to lose 10 pounds in 2 days.

For the objective to be result oriented, it should be central to the goals of the organization and successful completion of the objective should make     a difference.

For the objective to be time limited, it should be specific and traceable.

So the objective will be: To (action verb + single key result + target  date).

Example of an objective: To reduce the incidence of hospital acquired infection in X hospital by 50 % (the current rate is 7 %) in the next 6 months through strict adherence to the hand washing policy.

Goal is a broad term of a statement of a desirable future status. It needs not to be immediately attainable & is not restricted by time or existing resources and not specifying methods to be used.

Eradication of bilharziasis through case finding, mass treatment, snail control and health education is not a goal as it specifies the methods to be used.

To reduce dependency by guaranteeing every person an adequate income is not a goal as it specifies the method to be used.

How to write meaningful objective: Start with an action verb, Identify a single key result for each objective,Give the date of the estimated completion.                                                               

Examples of a goal and objectives: Example of a goal is Eradication of Bilharziasis while examples of objectives are Reduction of polio incidence (Output objective), Maintenance of 95% coverage of immunization for polio (Input objective).

The following is an example of a goal, objectives & targets for Bilharziasis: The goal is Bilharziasis eradication, the objective is Bilharziasis control and the target is treatment of 70% of Bilharzia patients.

Management is the operational philosophy that ensures the survival of the administrative organization in the social system.

Management Is a science as it utilizes scientific knowledge and uses the scientific approach in studying and analysis of the problems, putting assumptions for interpretation of its determinants and formulating programs to remedy these problems.

Management Is an art as it depends mainly on the managerial talents and skills as intelligence, imagination, creativity, conceptual skill, good personal judgment, interpersonal skills, problem solving ability, etc.

Management is a profession with so many management specialists who belong to agencies, institutions, societies, etc.

Management is a dynamic process in which many dynamic activities   are inter- related.

Management is a social process in which group of people must  cooperate to perform certain task and achieve an objective.

Management is a continuous process and is necessary so long as there is inconsistency between needs and resources available.

Management is a process that require human and non human resources: The human resources include all the manpower able and willing to work. The nonhuman resources include raw materials, equipment, money, time, etc.

Reactive management is handling health problems after they arise. Proactive management is thinking in health problems before they arise.

Management can be by: Rules and regulations (Abide by organization’s rules and regulations), Crisis (Actions and reactions  focusing on problems), Objectives (Focusing on results).

Management by objectives (MBO): Every person in the organization have objectives that conform with those of the organization.

MBO is a three step process: Writing clear, specific, measurable objectives, Developing a plan to meet the objectives and Evaluating the plan at predetermined times and taking corrective actions if necessary.                                                         

MBO: The objectives cover a specific time period (e.g. every 6 months) after which there is periodic review to see how sub-ordinates has achieved the objective.

Management by crisis is adopted in authoritarian organizations   Crises are often almost artificially created by managers (we are in a mess, drop all else and do this now). People soon learn that crises are the routine rather than the exception and cease to care. Management by crises is like fire – fighting.

Good management will not create crisis but will anticipate it and prepare for it, thus avoiding the need for further remedies.

Crisis Management Activities: Anticipating the potential crisis, Planning how to face the crisis, In the event of the crisis: Identify the nature of the crisis, do measures to intervene then do recovery and restoration.

The 3rd element, Resources: Are the inputs to the management process and it includes 3 Ms: Manpower, Material (Equipment, supplies, technology, information and time) and Money (Without which the first 2 types would not be available).

All resources are interdependent. Different types of resources used for achieving objectives must be carefully balanced. When the resources that are normally used to provide services become scarce or too expensive, different resources may be used to produce the intended result. This is called resource substitution. An example of resource substitution is medical personnel substitution as using medical orderlies to substitute nurses.

Effectiveness is the extent (degree) to which objectives have been achieved. Effectiveness is doing the right thing.

Efficiency refers to cost at which objectives have been achieved  It is doing things right.

Effectiveness of patient care comes first and is followed by efficiency in               resources used. It is more important to do the right things than to do things right. Example: If one infant only goes to the health office for immunization against polio, the nurse is required to open a sabin vaccine vial to immunize this infant and to discard the open vial, by this behavior, the nurse is looking for effectiveness on the expense of efficiency.

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